Bursitis: is a disorder that causes pain in the body's joints. It most commonly affects the shoulder and hip joints. It is caused by an inflammation of the bursa, small fluid-filled bags that act as lubricating surfaces for muscles to move over bones. This inflammation usually results from overactivity of an arm or leg.
Osteoporosis: is a disease resulting in the loss of bone tissue. In osteoporosis, the cancellous bone loses calcium, becomes thinner, and may disappear altogether.
A sprain: is an injury to a ligament or to the tissue that covers a joint. Most sprains result from a sudden wrench that stretches or tears the tissues of the ligaments. A sprain is usually extremely painful. The injured part often swells and turns black and blue.
Spina bifida: is a spinal defect that is present at birth. In spina bifida, the spinal cord does not form properly and the vertebrae and skin cannot form around it. Spina bifida results from an error in the development of the embryo that occurs about a month after a woman becomes pregnant. This error may have various causes, including the use of alcohol or certain medications by the pregnant woman or exposure to extreme heat. Genetic factors appear to be very important.
Arthritis: There are more than 100 diseases of the joints referred to as arthritis. Victims of arthritis suffer pain, stiffness, and swelling in their joints.
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, occurs when a joint wears out. Many elderly people have osteoarthritis, and the disease may also occur if a joint has been injured many times. The joints most frequently affected are those of the hands, hips, knees, lower back, and neck.
Scoliosis: is a side-to-side curve of the spine. This condition becomes apparent during adolescence. It is unknown why Scoliosis affects more girls than boys.
Talipes equinovarus: often called clubfoot is an abnormal condition of the foot, usually present at birth. The foot is bent downward and inward so that the person can walk only on the toes and on the outside of the foot. Sometimes the foot is bent upward and outward so that the person can use only the heel for walking.
Tendinitis: is a disorder involving stiffness or pain in the muscles or joints. It is often called rheumatism.
Kyphosis: also called hunchback is a forward bending of the spine. Kyphosis is caused by any condition that deforms the bones of the upper part of the spine so that the person is bent forward. Diseases that cause kyphosis include tuberculosis, syphilis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
A fracture: is a broken bone. These are some common kinds of fractures: