Acetylcholine: Chemical neurotransmitter in the brain and PNS
Action Potential: a conducted change in the membrane potential of excitable cells, initiated by a change in the membrane permeable to sodium ions
Autonomic Nervous System: Centers, nuclei, tracts, ganglia, and nerves involved in the unconscious regulation of visceral functions.
Axon: Elongate extension of a neuron that conducts an action potential.
Brain: The main neurological headquarters of the body
Cell Body: The main center of the cell
Central Nervous System: Acts as a control center for the nervous system; processes information, and provides short term control over activities of other systems
Cerebellum: Posterior portion of the metencephalon, containing the cerebral hemispheres, including the cerebral nuclei, and cerebral cortex.
Cerebrum- The largest portion of the brain, composed of the cerebral hemisphere; includes the cerebral cortex, the cerebral nuclei, and the 'white matter'
Dendrite: part of the neuron that receives incoming messages
Ganglia: A collection of nerve cell bodies
Medulla Oblongata: All communication between the brain and the spinal cord involves tracts the go through this area of the brain
Meninges: Three membranes that surround the surface of the CNS
Mixed Nerve: nerves that contains sensory and motor fibers
Motor nerve: These are messenger cells for the CNS
Nerve impulse: An action potential in a neuron cell membrane
Neuron: A cell in neural tissue specialized for intercellular communication by (1) changes in membrane potential and (2) synaptic communication
Neurotransmitter: Chemical compound released by one neuron to affect the membrane potential of another cell
Parasympathetic Nervous System: a division of the Autonomic Nervous system that controls nerves that are responsible for activities that conserve energy energy and lower the metabolism
Peripheral Nervous System: All communication between the body and the CNS occurs through the Peripheral N.S.
Reflex: A rapid, automatic response to a stimulus
Response: How a cell body reacts to a stimulus
Resting Potential: The membrane potential of a normal cell under ideal circumstances
Sensory Nerve: Conveys information from both the external and internal environments to other neurons inside the CNS.
Sodium-Potassium pump: This is a pump within individual cells that allows homeostasis within the cell by ejecting sodium ions and taking in Potassium ions
Spinal Cord: The spinal cord is the area of the body that receives messages from the brain and sends them throughout the body
Stimulus: A change in the environment that produces a change in cellular activities
Sympathetic Nervous System: The second division of the Autonomic N.S responsible for fight or flight responses primarily responsible with the elevation of the metabolic rate and increases alertness
Synapse: the part of the cell that allows it to communicate to other cells